Philip remained close to Lerma, however, and supported him in becoming a cardinal in March 1618 under Pope Paul V, a position which would offer Lerma some protection as his government collapsed.  By the financial crisis of 1607, the cortes had even insisted that it be recalled every three years, and that Philip take an oath – on pain of excommunication – to promise that he had spent the royal funds in line with the promises made previously to the cortes. Bonjour à vous qui visitez mon arbre. Il était beaucoup plus fondé que le roi d'Angleterre à revendiquer l'héritage des Capétiens directs.  Whilst Philip was not hugely active in government in other ways, once these memoranda, or consulta, had reached him he appears to have been assiduous in commenting on them. English: Philip IV (April 8, 1605 in Valladolid - September 17, 1665 in Madrid) was king of Spain, and king of Portugal as Philip III. De Lerma's role as royal favourite at court was further complicated by the rise of various 'proconsuls' under Philip III's reign – significant Spanish representatives overseas, who came to exercise independent judgement and even independent policies in the absence of strong leadership from the centre.  They were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. Kindle Edition. Élisabeth devient reine d'Espagne et met au monde deux enfants : Isabelle-Claire-Eugénie ( Ségovie , 12 août 1566 - Bruxelles , 1 er décembre 1633 ). The second, the Anglo–Spanish War was a newer, and less critical conflict with Protestant England, marked by a Spanish failure to successfully bring its huge military resources to bear on the smaller English military. Philip, whilst unwilling to move further against Lerma, took politically symbolic action against Lerma's former secretary Rodrigo Calderón, a figure emblematic of the former administration. Ils eurent : - Philippe IV, roi d'Espagne ; - Anne, qui épousa Louis XIII, roi de France ; In particular, Feros (2006) and Williams' (2006) recent extensive studies of the period, and Sánchez's (1996) analysis of the role of powerful women, often under-reported in historical documents, at Philip's court. Apathique et faible de santé, il laissa le duc de Lerme, son ministre, gouverner sous son nom. Charles had 4 siblings: Philippe IV D ESPAGNE and 3 other siblings. (1578-1621), king of Spain, son of Philip II. Contacter . Le Portugal sous Philippe III d'Espagne : l'action de Diego de Silva y Mendoza. Philip III turned to peace negotiations instead; with the accession to the throne of James I of England it became possible to terminate both the war and English support to the Dutch, with the signature in 1604 of the Treaty of London..  Osuna fell from power only when de Lerma had lost his royal favour, and Osuna's negative impact on Philip's plans for intervention in Germany had become intolerable.. Sa devise est Dominus mihi adiutor (« Dieu est mon aide »). Le roi mourut de déshydratation. Publisher: Pierre van der Aa, (1715), Leyde, Publication Date: 1715. Español: Felipe III de España, llamado «el Piadoso» (Madrid, 14 de abril de 1578-ibídem, 31 de marzo de 1621), fue rey de España y de Portugal desde el 13 de septiembre de 1598 hasta su muerte. Le serviteur préposé à la cheminée étant absent, personne n'éteint le feu. Les validos se succèdent au détriment du royaume et du crédit du roi. Philippe III (roi d'Espagne) Philippe III (ou Felipe III en espagnol) est un prince espagnol de la maison de Habsbourg né le à Madrid et mort le à Madrid. , Philip and Lerma's attempts to resolve this crisis largely failed, and were not helped by the increasing size of the royal household – an attempt to increase royal prestige and political authority – Philip's own household costs rose enormously at a time of falling income. For the first nine years of his reign, he pursued a highly aggressive set of policies, aiming to deliver a 'great victory'. Philippe II, né le 21 mai 1527 à Valladolid et mort le 13 septembre 1598 au palais de l'Escurial, fils aîné de Charles Quint et d'Isabelle de Portugal, est roi d'Espagne, de Naples et de Sicile, archiduc d'Autriche, duc de Milan et prince souverain des Pays-Bas de l'abdication de son père en 1555 à sa mort. Español. Español: Felipe III de España, llamado «el Piadoso» (Madrid, 14 de abril de 1578-ibídem, 31 de marzo de 1621), fue rey de España y de Portugal desde el 13 de septiembre de 1598 hasta su muerte. Русский. His occupation was Roi des'Espagnes, de Naples (1556-1598), Roi du Portugal (1580-1598), Prince souverain des Pays-Bas. De 1989 à nos jours, de nombreuses pièces de monnaie en métaux précieux ont été frappées pour les collectionneurs. Tel 04 78 37 63 20; email@example.com; Rechercher. Découvrez les bonnes réponses, synonymes et autres mots utiles Ascendance de Philippe III sur cinq générations, La situation économique et politique sous le règne de Philippe III, Alexandre Salvator de Habsbourg-Toscane**, Constantin Salvator de Habsbourg-Toscane**, http://www.cosmovisions.com/PhilippeIIIEspagne.htm, François Charles Salvator de Habsbourg-Toscane, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philippe_III_(roi_d%27Espagne)&oldid=175722469, Prince héritier et princesse héritière de Portugal, Grand maître de l'ordre de la Toison d'or, Chevalier de l'ordre de la Toison d'or (XVIe siècle), Article contenant un appel à traduction en espagnol, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Article contenant un appel à traduction en hongrois, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Article contenant un appel à traduction en allemand, Portail:Biographie/Articles liés/Politique, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, le duc d'Uceda, fils du précédent, de 1618 à la mort du roi, en 1621. Il est le fils du roi Philippe II d'Espagne (1527-1598) et de sa quatrième épouse Anne d'Autriche (1549-1580). Available Exact wording Only in the title. Philippe was born on May 21 1527, in Valladolid, Espagne.  He believed that Carlos' education and upbringing had been badly affected by this, resulting in his lunacy and disobedience, and accordingly he set out to pay much greater attention to arrangements for his later sons.  En réalité, le roi est malade depuis des années et cet épisode ne lui est fatal que parce que son état de santé laissait déjà largement à désirer depuis des années. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. This new system of government became increasingly unpopular very quickly. Philippe III (roi d'Espagne) Usage on gl.wikipedia.org Filipe III de España; Usage on he.wikipedia.org פליפה השלישי, מלך ספרד; Usage on hu.wikipedia.org III. [Burgos, 5 novembre 1615.] Philip's initial aim was to achieve a decisive 'great victory' in the long running war against the rebellious Dutch provinces of the Spanish Netherlands, whilst placing renewed pressure on the English government of Queen Elizabeth I in an effort to terminate English support for their Dutch colleagues.  To his contemporaries, the degree of personal oversight he exercised was excessive; his 'self-imposed role as the chief clerk to the Spanish empire' was not thought entirely appropriate. Philippe III, enfant, avec son frère aîné Don Diego, prince des Asturies : ICI. Vérifiez les traductions 'Philippe III d’Espagne' en espagnol. À sa mort, le 13 septembre 1598, Philippe II laisse en effet la direction du gouvernement à des favoris. To exacerbate matters, Osuna was found to have prevented the local Neapolitans from petitioning Philip III to complain.  Mateo Alemán, one of the first modern novelists in Europe, captured the despondent mood of the period, describing 'the plague that came down from Castile and the famine that rose from Andalusia' to grip the country.  The Real Audiencia of Santiago opined in the 1650s that slavery of Mapuches was one of the reasons for constant state of war between the Spanish and the Mapuche..  Philip II had made the elimination of the Morisco threat a key part of his domestic strategy in the south, attempting an assimilation campaign in the 1560s, which had resulted in the revolt that concluded in 1570. Le 18 avril 1599, Philippe III épouse sa cousine Marguerite d'Autriche-Styrie, sœur de l'empereur Ferdinand II. The result was a radical shift in the role of the crown in government from the model of Philip II.  Unlike Philip IV, whose reputation has improved significantly in the light of recent analysis, Philip III's reign has been relatively unstudied, possibly because of the negative interpretation given to the role of Philip and Lerma during the period. In the final years of Philip's reign, Spain entered the initial part of the conflict that would become known as the Thirty Years' War (1618–48). L'Espagne s'enfonce dans une crise économique due à l'épuisement des métaux précieux en provenance d'Amérique et des guerres coûteuses. The novel idea of a valido exercising power went against the long-standing popular conception that the king should exercise his powers personally, not through another. Philippe III (ou Felipe III en espagnol) est un prince espagnol de la maison de Habsbourg né le 14 avril 1578 à Madrid et mort le 31 mars 1621 dans la même ville. Famine struck during the 1590s through a sequence of bad harvests, whilst from 1599 to 1600 and for several years afterwards there was a terrible outbreak of bubonic plague across Spain, killing over 10% of the population. Philip III in turn married his first cousin once removed, Margaret of Austria. View item AE-Collections (France) Belgien - Hennegau : 1610 SPANISH NL - HAINAULT Liard 1610 Roermond ALBERT & ELIZABETH copper RARE!# 38861 VF: 59.97 US$ + 10.91 US$ shipping. Marguerite was born on December 25 1584, in Graz, Graz, Styria, Austria. Philip III's approach to government appears to have stemmed from three main drivers. . Philip III (Spanish: Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain. Espagne Philippe III (1598-1621) 2 escudos or - 1612 S D Séville. Espagne, Philippe III (1598-1621), 2 Escudos, Seville, non daté (1598-1601), TTB, Or Qualité de la monnaie : TTB Métal : Or Pays : Espagne Valeur faciale : 2 Escudos Année : 1615 Atelier : Seville Type de produit : Monnaie 6.67 gr X Close. Philippe IV (ou Felipe IV en espagnol), né à Valladolid le 8 avril 1605 et décédé à Madrid le 17 septembre 1665, dit le Grand ou le « roi-Planète », est roi des Espagnes et des Indes après la mort de son père Philippe III d'Espagne, du 31 mars 1621 à sa mort [Note 1].Il porta également les titres de roi des Deux-Siciles, roi de Portugal [Note 2] et souverain des Pays-Bas [Note 3]. Ils eurent huit enfants : Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Il n’a hérité de son : Titre; Roi d'Espagne, de Sicile et de Naples; 13 septembre 1598 – 31 mars 1621 1598 – 31 mars 1621 Throughout Philip's reign, a body of analysis of Spain's condition began to emerge through the work of the numerous arbitristas, or commentators, that dominated public discussions from around 1600 through to the 1630s. L’Espagne s’enfonce dans une crise économique due à l’épuisement des métaux précieux en provenance d’Amérique et des guerres coûteuses. With the death of Henry IV of France – a supporter of the war against Spain – a period of instability commenced in the Kingdom of France. 300–301. Fils aîné de Philippe III, comte d'Évreux, mort en 1343, et de Jeanne de France, morte en 1349, reine de Navarre sous le nom de Jeanne II à la mort de Charles IV le Bel. The result was a decisive Spanish victory in the Holy Roman Empire that would lead to a recommencement of the war with the Dutch shortly after Philip's death. Philip III's reign was marked by significant economic problems across Spain. Philippe III était le fils de Philippe II, roi d'Espagne, et d'Anne, archiduchesse d'Autriche. (fr) Filips III (Madrid, 14 april 1578 - aldaar, 31 maart 1621) was van 1598 tot 1621 koning van Spanje, Napels, Sicilië en (als Filips II) van Portugal. L'impératrice Marie et le prince Philippe qui deviendra Philippe III d'Espagne. Wedgwood, p. 55; Stradling, p. 18; Elliott, 1963, pp. La mort du roi révèle l'imbroglio du cérémonial de la cour espagnole. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Philippe V d’Anjou, premier roi Bourbon d’Espagne est 31 fois l’ascendant du sixième roi Philippe. Il porta également les titres … Fiche détaillée de la pièce 2 maravedis Philippe III, Espagne, avec photos et gestion de votre collection et des échanges : tirages, descriptions, métal, poids, valeur et autres infos numismatiques 1.2.  Each part had different taxation, privileges and military arrangements; in practice, the level of taxation in many of the more peripheral provinces was less than in Castile, but the privileged position of the Castilian nobility at all senior levels of royal appointment was a contentious issue for the less favoured provinces.  By the time Defensive War was established war between Spanish and Mapuche had been going on for 70 years. 中文 . Malade depuis des années, le roi — il n'a que 43 ans — se plaint de la chaleur de la pièce. La faiblesse du royaume d’Espagne tient d'abord à la personnalité du roi, qui laisse son favori gouverner. Religion, Philip and the role of women at court, War with the Dutch, England and the truce of 1609–21. Both concessions were temporary as the Dutch soon recommenced preying upon Portuguese interests, which had already led to the Dutch-Portuguese War in 1602 and would continue till 1654.  His instructions to Lerma to wage a war of 'blood and iron' on his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands reflects this. Charles III est 22 fois l’ascendant de Philippe VI. Philip married Margaret of Austria, his second cousin.  The result was an economically weakened Spain with a rapidly falling population. Philippe III.- Roi d'Espagne, fils de Philippe II, né en 1578, régna de 1598 à 1621. One of Philip's first domestic changes was the issuing of a decree in 1609 for the expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain, timed to coincide with the declaration of a truce in the war for the Netherlands. Spain and Austria's common Habsburg ancestry influenced Spain's involvement in the convoluted politics of the Empire: on the one hand, Philip had a vested interest in the success of his cousin Ferdinand of Bohemia, who intended to follow Matthias to the throne; on the other, Philip had hopes of appointing one of his own family, such as Prince Philip, to the Imperial throne and worried that a failed bid by Ferdinand might reduce collective Habsburg prestige. Philip died in 1621 shortly before the recommencement of war – his son, Philip IV, retained his chief foreign policy advisor, de Zúñiga, and an initially highly successful campaign against the Dutch began the same year.  Philip steadily acquired other religious advisors. TTB à Superbe - NGC XF 45 400 / 500 At least with peace in Europe, the Twelve Year's truce gave Philip's regime an opportunity to begin to recover its financial position. Philip had an 'affectionate, close relationship' with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Compromis dans différentes affaires, le duc de Lerma est renvoyé en 1618 et remplacé par son fils, le duc d'Uceda, mais celui-ci n'a pas le temps de réformer l'État car le roi meurt dès 1621. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 19 octobre 2020 à 16:45. Il est le quatrième enfant du roi Philippe II et de sa quatrième épouse et nièce Anne d'Autriche, fille de l'empereur Maximilien II et de Marie d'Autriche, infante d'Espagne.  France, assumed bound to support Frederick against Ferdinand, was in fact inclined to remain neutral.  The Spanish troops headed by Spinola in the Palatinate and by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly in Bohemia achieved a decisive victory against the Czechs in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. He had inherited huge debts from his father, Philip II, and an unhelpful tradition that the kingdom of Castile bore the brunt of royal taxation – Castile carried 65% of total imperial costs by 1616. Histoire Du Règne De Philippe Iii, Roi D'espagne, Volume 3... (French) Paperback – 27 November 2011 by Robert Watson (Author) He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death in 1621. Lettre du roy d'Espagne [Philippe III] envoyée à M. le Prince de Condé.  Uceda initially took over as the primary voice at court, but without his father's extensive powers, whilst De Zúñiga became Philip's minister for foreign and military affairs. , Margaret, alongside Philip's grandmother/aunt, Empress Maria – the Austrian representative to the Spanish court – and Margaret of the Cross, Maria's daughter – formed a powerful, uncompromising Catholic and pro-Austrian voice within Philip's life. Découvrez gratuitement l'arbre généalogique de Philippe III d'Espagne le Pieux pour tout savoir sur ses origines et son histoire familiale. Philip encouraged consolidation of noble estates, selling off large quantities of crown lands to favoured nobles and creditors.  The challenges to government communication during the period encouraged aspects of this, but the phenomenon was much more marked under Philip III than under either the reign of his father or son. Like many Habsburgs, Philip III was the product of extensive inbreeding. Later generations are included although Austrian titles of nobility were abolished in 1919. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch (1609–1621) and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) through an (initially) extremely successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.  Nonetheless, through most of Philip's reign there was no significant attempt at reform – Philip continued to rule in line with local laws and customs. He inherited the beliefs of his father, but no share of his industry. E-shops. They had the following children: Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. Sommaire 1 Biographie  Philip's use of Lerma as his valido has formed one of the key historical and contemporary criticisms against him; recent work has perhaps begun to present a more nuanced picture of the relationship and the institution that survived for the next forty years in Spanish royal government. Pour prévenir le soulèvement des Maures convertis, Philippe III les chasse tous de ses États en 1609. Français. Fils de Philippe II et de sa nièce Anne d'Autriche, il est roi d'Espagne, de Naples, de Sicile et de Portugal de 1598 à sa mort. Il n'a ni énergie ni capacités pour gouverner. letzter habsburgischer König von Portugal. The Duke of Osuna, who had married into the Sandovel family as a close ally of Lerma, again showed significant independence as the Viceroy of Naples towards the end of Philip's reign. To secure the connection between Milan and the Netherlands a new route was opened through Valtellina, then part of the independent state of the Three Leagues (the present day canton of Graubünden, Switzerland), and in 1618 the plot of Venice occurred in which the authorities engaged in the persecution of pro-Spanish agents. Ses trois frères aînés sont morts durant l'enfance, sa mère meurt en 1580 en donnant naissance à son cinquième enfant, une petite fille morte à l'âge de deux ans. Philippe was born on May 21 1527, in Valladolid, Castille-et-Leon, Espagne. Estimates vary slightly, but between around 275,000 to over 300,000 Moriscos were forced out of Spain between 1609 and 1614. Durant son règne, Philippe III crée vingt marquis et vingt-cinq comtes. In the Netherlands, his father Philip II had bequeathed his remaining territories in the Low Countries to his daughter Isabella of Spain and her husband, Archduke Albert, under the condition that if she died without heirs, the province would return to the Spanish Crown. Calderón, suspected of having killed Philip's wife Queen Margaret by witchcraft in 1611, was ultimately tortured and then executed by Philip for the more plausible murder of the soldier Francisco de Juaras.. Philippe III d'Espagne (14 avril 1578 à Madrid, 31 mars 1621 à Madrid) fut roi d'Espagne, roi de Portugal et d'Algarves (Philippe II de Portugal) de 1598 à sa mort. Vaccaro’s bronze is a small-scale version of his equestrian monument of the Spanish monarch erected in the square of the Gesù Nuovo in Naples in 1705. CGB CONTINUES TO HANDLE YOUR DELIVERIES!  As a result, Philip's foreign policy in the Netherlands would be exercised through the strong-willed Archdukes, but in the knowledge that ultimately the Spanish Netherlands would return to him as king. [Paul C Allen] -- "This book examines the strategies that led King Philip III to extend the laurel branch to his foes. On la retrouve sur des plaques de cheminées en fonte datées de 1608 (à l'occasion de son trentième anniversaire) en Belgique et en Lorraine.  Philip had also been increasingly influenced over the years by first Queen Margaret, and later the other, powerful Habsburg women at court, whilst the incoming set of advisors that replaced de Lerma, especially de Zúñiga, also saw Spain's future as part of a strong alliance with a Habsburg Holy Roman Empire. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Lerma fell to an alliance of interests – Uceda, his son, led the attack, aiming to protect his future interests, allied with Don Baltasar de Zúñiga, a well-connected noble with a background in diplomacy across Europe, whose nephew, Olivares was close to the heir to the throne, Prince Philip. Reséndez, Andrés. Delivery: 7 - 10 days.  The following year, Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the Spanish Empire to his son (and grandnephew), King Philip III. to 650 A.C. Celtic coins450 B.C. De la obra Les Delices de l'Espagne de Juan Alvarez de Colmenar. PHILIP III. Elliott. In conjunction with the Spanish ambassador to Venice, the influential Marquis of Bedmar, Osuna pursued a policy of raising an extensive army, intercepting Venetian shipping and imposing sufficiently high taxes that threats of a revolt began to emerge. Arte y saber : la cultura en tiempos de Felipe III y Felipe IV : 15 abril-27 junio 1999, Museo Nacional de Escultura, Palacio de Villena, Valladolid. Fils de Philippe II et de sa nièce Anne d'Autriche , il est roi d'Espagne , de Naples , de Sicile et de Portugal (« Philippe II ») de 1598 à sa mort. Delivery: 9 - 12 days. The story told in the memoirs of the French ambassador Bassompierre, that he was killed by the heat of a brasero (a pan of hot charcoal), because the proper official to take it away was not at hand, is a humorous exaggeration of the formal etiquette of the court.  Debates in royal councils would now only begin upon the written instruction of the king – again, through Lerma. Philip III and the Pax Hispanica, 1598-1621 : the failure of grand strategy. Philip first started to become engaged in practical government at the age of 15, when he joined Philip II's private committee..  Writers such as Girolamo Frachetta, who became a particular favourite of Philip, had propagated a conservative definition of 'reason of state' which centred on exercising a princely prudence and a strict obedience to the laws and customs of the country that one ruled. In the Americas Philip inherited a difficult situation in Chile, where the Arauco War raged and the local Mapuche succeeded in razing seven Spanish cities (1598–1604). Although also known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been largely negative – an 'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a 'miserable monarch,' whose 'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Voir aussi : Espagne - États Philippe III (ou Felipe III en espagnol) est un prince espagnol de la maison de Habsbourg né le 14 avril 1578 à Madrid et mort le 31 mars 1621 dans la même ville. En 1568, de grandes révoltes éclatent en Espagne, les morisques (musulmans) se manifestent contre la loi leur interdisant l'usage de leur culture et de leur langue. La régence, confiée à la reine-mère Marie de Médicis, marque le début d'une politique pacifiste de rapprochement avec la maison de Habsbourg. Le duc d'Uceda, fils du duc de Lerma, succède à son père et est le favori du roi de 1618 à 1621. The Marquis of Villafranca, as governor of Milan, similarly exercised his own considerable judgement on foreign policy. Le valido étudie les affaires et propose des solutions, le roi y adhère en général sans plus d'examen ; la signature du valido a la même valeur que celle du roi.  The degree to which Lerma himself played an active role in government has been disputed.  Financially, the Spanish state had become dominated by Genoese bankers and lenders under Philip II, whose lines of credit had allowed the Spanish state to continue during its moments of financial crisis; under Philip III this process remained unchecked, building up considerable resentment against this foreign influence, some going so far as to term the bankers 'white moors'..  As a matter of policy, Philip had tried to avoid appointing grandees to major positions of power within his government and relied heavily on the lesser nobles, the so-called 'service' nobility.  After 1609, when it became evident that Spain was financially exhausted and Philip sought a truce with the Dutch, there followed a period of retrenchment; in the background, tensions continued to grow, however, and by 1618 the policies of Philip's 'proconsols' – men like Spinola, Fuentes, Villafranca, Osuna and Bedmar – were increasingly at odds with de Lerma's policy from Madrid.  De Lerma was uncertain of how to deal with Spinola; on the one hand, de Lerma desperately needed a successful military commander in the Netherlands – on the other, de Lerma was contemptuous of Spinola's relatively low origins and scared of his potential to destabilise de Lerma at court. The first of these, the ongoing and long-running Dutch revolt, represented a serious challenge to Spanish power from the Protestant United Provinces in a crucial part of the Spanish Empire. En 1610, l'assassinat du roi Henri IV de France permet l’avènement du jeune Louis XIII, alors âgé de neuf ans. Philippe III de Habsbourg, né le 14 avril 1578 à Madrid, ville où il est mort le 31 mars 1621, est un roi d'Espagne et de Portugal qui a régné de 1598 à 1621.. Règne [modifier | modifier le wikicode].  This decree was abused when Spanish settlers in Chiloé Archipelago used it to justify slave raids against groups such as the Chono of northwestern Patagonia who had never been under Spanish rule and never rebelled.  All members of royal councils were under orders to maintain complete transparency with Lerma as the king's personal representative; indeed, in 1612 the councils were ordered by Philip to obey Lerma as if he were the king. L’Espagne est donc gouvernée par des « validos », des favoris qui ne sont pas tout à fait des Premiers ministres. Élisabeth épousa le roi Philippe IV d'Espagne à Bordeaux le 25 novembre 1615. On his accession, Philip inherited two major conflicts from his father. Après avoir reçu en 1553 le royaume de Naples et le duché de Milan, puis, deux ans plus tard, les Pays-Bas, Philippe II, à la suite de l'abdication de son père, est couronné le 28 mars 1556 à Valladolid ; il hérite de toutes les possessions espagnoles d'Europe et du Nouveau Monde. Il est le fils du roi Philippe II d'Espagne (1527-1598) et de sa quatrième épouse Anne d'Autriche (1549-1580).  In the Netherlands, a new war strategy resulted in a re-establishment of Spanish power on the north side of the great rivers Meuse and Rhine, stepping up the military pressure on the rebel provinces. Très rare. Philip III died in Madrid on 31 March 1621, and was succeeded by his son, Philip IV, who rapidly completed the process of removing the last elements of the Sandoval family regime from court. [Museo Nacional de Escultura (Valladolid, Spain); Spain. 900,00 € voir article. L'Espagne signe la même année une trêve de douze ans avec les Provinces-Unies.