Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. Mythology, Philosophy & Religion [165]) Faustina was three months pregnant at her husband's accession. [156] As the biographer wrote, 'Verus obeyed Marcus...as a lieutenant obeys a proconsul or a governor obeys the emperor'. In 161, the. After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus acceded to the throne alongside his adoptive brother, who took the name Lucius Verus. Marcus's great-grandfather Marcus Annius Verus (I) was a senator and (according to the Historia Augusta) ex-praetor; his grandfather Marcus Annius Verus (II) was made patrician in 73–74. [123][304] One son and four daughters outlived their father. There is a double claim on the Emperor’s stoic soul: The hope has become a reality. [91] In spite of the influence of Atticus, Marcus would later become a Stoic. London: Routledge, 1968. Nonetheless, his biographer attests that his character remained unaffected: 'He still showed the same respect to his relations as he had when he was an ordinary citizen, and he was as thrifty and careful of his possessions as he had been when he lived in a private household'. [83] Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. [233] Lucilla was accompanied by her mother Faustina and Lucius's uncle (his father's half-brother) M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus,[234] who was made comes Augusti, 'companion of the emperors'. [78], On 1 January 145, Marcus was made consul a second time. He advances the recognition of ought as the only true freedom. pious god-talk brings to mind Benedictus de Spinoza. The Emperor anticipates Nietzsche’s «amor fati», also Pope John Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 157 n.53. the ancient pagan culture of Greece and Rome. The Column of Marcus Aurelius in Piazza Colonna. [100], He wrote Fronto a letter on his birthday, claiming to love him as he loved himself, and calling on the gods to ensure that every word he learnt of literature, he would learn 'from the lips of Fronto'. As the heir apparent, Marcus became princeps iuventutis, head of the equestrian order. Clemens was from the frontier province of Pannonia and had served in the war in Mauretania. [81] In April 145, Marcus married Faustina, legally his sister, as had been planned since 138. The child's name is unknown. Lucius had a markedly different personality from Marcus: he enjoyed sports of all kinds, but especially hunting and wrestling; he took obvious pleasure in the circus games and gladiatorial fights. [194] The governor of Cappadocia, the frontline in all Armenian conflicts, was Marcus Sedatius Severianus, a Gaul with much experience in military matters. He was made consul soon after. One notorious case brought him into conflict with Atticus. Les petites anecdotes historiques d'un philosophe voïageur a l'empereur Marc Auréle aux Champs Elisés - Ebook written by . It would mean the end of the felicitas temporum ('happy times') that the coinage of 161 had proclaimed. Intelligence (nous), which is of the divine, returns to the tongue was in French by Pardoux Duprat in 1570. Her inheritance included large brickworks on the outskirts of Rome – a profitable enterprise in an era when the city was experiencing a construction boom – and the Horti Domitia Calvillae (or Lucillae), a villa on the Caelian hill of Rome. IV' in imperial titulature. Stoic freedom necessity. rhetorical, and unlike Epictetus’ maxims, conveyed by Arrius in strong, Attic prose, the Emperor’s «Meditations» are confessional in tone. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', pp. ', 'Dwell on the beauty of life. Help. [47] Marcus thanks Alexander for his training in literary styling. [68] He was made consul for 140 with Antoninus as his colleague, and was appointed as a seviri, one of the knights' six commanders, at the order's annual parade on 15 July 139. A stoic oscillates between resignation This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. Who knows better than you how demanding it is! Hegel puts his finger on Stoicism’s The individual, «civis romanus» —Roman citizen—serves 'When Glass Was Treasured in China'. As tribune, he had the right to bring one measure before the senate after the four Antoninus could introduce. A first invasion of the Chatti in the province of Germania Superior was repulsed in 162. L’impératrice Faustine, épouse de l’empereur Marc Aurèle, dans la seconde moitié du II e siècle apr. The adoptive family of Marcus was of Roman Italo-Gallic origins: the gens Aurelia, into which Marcus was adopted at the age of 17, was a Sabine gens; Antoninus Pius, his adoptive father, came from the Aurelii Fulvi, a branch of the Aurelii based in Roman Gaul. Marcus may have wanted Civica to watch over Lucius, the job Libo had failed at. [33][note 2] Though he can hardly have known his father, Marcus wrote in his Meditations that he had learnt 'modesty and manliness' from his memories of his father and the man's posthumous reputation. Unlike some of his predecessors, Marcus chose not to adopt an heir. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus,[11] but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age,[12][13][14] or at the time of his marriage. Roman Calendar [314], It is not known how widely Marcus's writings were circulated after his death. Archaeology Marc Aurel Online. Meditations is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty. Hadrian died that year and Antoninus became emperor. [151] The senate accepted, granting Lucius the imperium, the tribunician power, and the name Augustus. It may have continued into the reign of Commodus. is no mean feat, considering how well written many of its entries seem to Cependant, une anecdote de l’Histoire Auguste tend à démontrer que, de manière générale, le bassin était également le siège du désir chez les femmes. [174] Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession. G. Puente-Ojea (Ideología [300] The number and severity of persecutions of Christians in various locations of the empire seemingly increased during the reign of Marcus. to ensnare us through our eyes, belly, and folly. A History of Philosophy. Dio is vital for the military history of the period, but his senatorial prejudices and strong opposition to imperial expansion obscure his perspective. This matter must be our next topic; for our history now descends from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust, as affairs did for the Romans of that day. There are translations. His campaigns against Germans and Sarmatians were also commemorated by a column and a temple built in Rome. [51] While his motives are not certain, it would appear that his goal was to eventually place the then-too-young Marcus on the throne. [48] Alexander's influence – an emphasis on matter over style and careful wording, with the occasional Homeric quotation – has been detected in Marcus's Meditations. [84], After taking the toga virilis in 136, Marcus probably began his training in oratory. witness the intimate moral struggle of an eminently civilized man. He told himself it was an attainable goal – 'Where life is possible, then it is possible to live the right life; life is possible in a palace, so it is possible to live the right life in a palace'[73] – but he found it difficult nonetheless. Birley believes there is some truth in these considerations. does not believe in immortality, although he suggests a temporary persistence Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. [63] The succession to Antoninus was peaceful and stable: Antoninus kept Hadrian's nominees in office and appeased the senate, respecting its privileges and commuting the death sentences of men charged in Hadrian's last days. [135] Lucius had no other titles, except that of 'son of Augustus'. [98] Fronto put an uncharitable interpretation of Marcus's 'conversion to philosophy': 'In the fashion of the young, tired of boring work', Marcus had turned to philosophy to escape the constant exercises of oratorical training. Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus, a distant relative of Hadrian, was in Upper Pannonia, succeeding the experienced Marcus Nonius Macrinus. [7] Some other literary sources provide specific details: the writings of the physician Galen on the habits of the Antonine elite, the orations of Aelius Aristides on the temper of the times, and the constitutions preserved in the Digest and Codex Justinianeus on Marcus's legal work. He had rested, and would rest often, but 'this devotion to duty! in the English language. [4], A body of correspondence between Marcus's tutor Fronto and various Antonine officials survives in a series of patchy manuscripts, covering the period from c. 138 to 166. [273], Marcus showed a great deal of respect to the Roman Senate and routinely asked them for permission to spend money even though he did not need to do so as the absolute ruler of the Empire. At Hadrian's request, Antoninus's daughter Faustina was betrothed to Lucius. gestures of resignation to the cosmic pattern of things; a cosmic pattern [160] Upon his accession he also devalued the Roman currency. [71] Marcus would struggle to reconcile the life of the court with his philosophic yearnings. The principles of the Emperor—his [206], The northern frontiers were strategically weakened; frontier governors were told to avoid conflict wherever possible. Upon his adoption by Antoninus as heir to the throne, he was known as Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar and, upon his ascension, he was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus until his death;[17] Epiphanius of Salamis, in his chronology of the Roman emperors On Weights and Measures, calls him Marcus Aurelius Verus. (1967) [262] The condition on the northern frontier looked grave. If not for his adoption, he probably would have become triumvir monetalis, a highly regarded post involving token administration of the state mint; after that, he could have served as tribune with a legion, becoming the legion's nominal second-in-command. [98] The pair were very close, using intimate language such as 'Farewell my Fronto, wherever you are, my most sweet love and delight. "It is an … [23][24][note 1], Marcus's mother, Domitia Lucilla Minor (also known as Domitia Calvilla), was the daughter of the Roman patrician P. Calvisius Tullus and inherited a great fortune (described at length in one of Pliny's letters) from her parents and grandparents. [251], By the end of the year, Cassius's army had reached the twin metropolises of Mesopotamia: Seleucia on the right bank of the Tigris and Ctesiphon on the left. [209], Marcus took a four-day public holiday at Alsium, a resort town on the coast of Etruria. 'Meditations' – as well as other titles including 'To Himself' – were adopted later. labyrinth to the Wisdom of the ancient Stoa. Renan's "Marc-Aurèle"--in his "History of the Origins of Christianity," which appeared in 1882 - is the most vital and original book to be had relating to the time of Marcus Aurelius. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. 26 editions of Marcus Aurelius’ writings were published in the 17th century, 58 in the 18th century. We modern men do not share with [141] In 160, Marcus and Lucius were designated joint consuls for the following year. He would criticize himself in the Meditations for 'abusing court life' in front of company. [89] Atticus was an inveterate opponent of Stoicism and philosophic pretensions. [76] He was being 'fitted for ruling the state', in the words of his biographer. and object of valuable intellectual awareness. He might have died in 152, the same year as Marcus's sister Cornificia. [131] By 28 March 158, when Marcus replied, another of his children was dead. [171] At the ceremonies commemorating the event, new provisions were made for the support of poor children, along the lines of earlier imperial foundations. [62] His remains were buried quietly at Puteoli. [ˈmaːrkʊs̠ au̯ˈreːlijʊs̠ an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊs̠], persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Last Words of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 'Marcus Aurelius: Plato's Philosopher King', 'Column of Marcus Aurelius: Overall view, of base and column', 'The Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius', Epiphanius' Treatise on Weights and Measures – The Syriac Version, Modern Stoicism: A Case for a Philosopher-King, The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marcus_Aurelius&oldid=994697323, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox philosopher with embed equal yes, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Tiberius Aelius Antoninus (born 152, died before 156), Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (161–165), elder twin brother of Commodus, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships. Pascal may have been its last major intellectual. The emperor's hand is outstretched in an act of clemency offered to a bested enemy, while his weary facial expression due to the stress of leading Rome into nearly constant battles perhaps represents a break with the classical tradition of sculpture. James Marc-Aurele, BS, MBA, OTR/L. all matters and instances of excellence of understanding and knowledge concerning The campaign had lasted only three days. [150] Thus, although the senate planned to confirm Marcus alone, he refused to take office unless Lucius received equal powers. The first translation to any vernacular [133], Lucius started his political career as a quaestor in 153. a man of his time, rooted in his pagan culture, and a fine representative [94][note 6] He did not care much for Atticus, though Marcus was eventually to put the pair on speaking terms. His children included Lucilla, who married Lucius, and Commodus, whose succession after Marcus has been a subject of debate among both contemporary and modern historians. [163] The temple he had dedicated to his wife, Diva Faustina, became the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Then, like every new emperor since Claudius, Lucius promised the troops a special donative. [221] Lucius's biographer suggests ulterior motives: to restrain Lucius's debaucheries, to make him thrifty, to reform his morals by the terror of war, and to realize that he was an emperor. of the self beyond death (Med. Roman emperor from 161 to 180, philosopher, The dissolute Syrian army spent more time in, Marcus Aurelius receiving the submission of the vanquished, with raised. The transition motif has been used to describe [42] One of his teachers, Diognetus, a painting master, proved particularly influential; he seems to have introduced Marcus Aurelius to the philosophic way of life. [203] Three full legions were also sent east: I Minervia from Bonn in Upper Germany,[204] II Adiutrix from Aquincum,[205] and V Macedonica from Troesmis. [49], In late 136, Hadrian almost died from a hemorrhage. Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Jancie J.; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitters, Mark F. An, Jiayao. Numerous members of Germanic tribes settled in frontier regions like Dacia, Pannonia, Germany, and Italy itself. New York. of villages and mores in the name of laissez-faire, the Emperor had really The Emperor’s [58] Marcus reportedly greeted the news that Hadrian had become his adoptive grandfather with sadness, instead of joy. It drowned many animals, leaving the city in famine. [242] A new king was installed: a Roman senator of consular rank and Arsacid descent, Gaius Julius Sohaemus. Needless to say, from this «Natura This was not a new thing, but this time the numbers of settlers required the creation of two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Sarmatia and Marcomannia, including today's Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. [75] But he felt drowned in paperwork and complained to his tutor, Marcus Cornelius Fronto: 'I am so out of breath from dictating nearly thirty letters'. FAQ Purchasing Order Payment Delivery Returns Right of Withdrawal Service. [112], Fronto had warned Marcus against the study of philosophy early on: 'It is better never to have touched the teaching of philosophy...than to have tasted it superficially, with the edge of the lips, as the saying is'. personalized deity, caritas, humilitas, resignatio, ascesis, contemptu mundi, The political scoundrels of our world could take a [230], In the middle of the war, perhaps in autumn 163 or early 164, Lucius made a trip to Ephesus to be married to Marcus's daughter Lucilla.