On 18 February, police and army personnel later withdrew from Benghazi after being overwhelmed by protesters. They live in terror. THE ROLE OF DIGITAL MEDIA. [164] On 29 March, the political and international affairs committee of the Council presented its eight-point plan for Libya in The Guardian newspaper, stating they would hold free and fair elections and draft a national constitution. [115] The government sometimes executed dissidents through public hangings and mutilations and re-broadcast them on public television channels. [70], Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. This is one reason why Gaddafi needs foreign fighters,"[227] Rumours of Serbian mercenary pilots participating on the side of Gaddafi appeared early in the conflict. [200], According to Libyan state television, the rebels used human shields in Misrata. [243] Several residents reported that cellphone service was down, and even landline phone service was sporadic. Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside, no members of the Gaddafi family were found. In addition, the report stated that there were information platforms such as newspapers and TV channels for people to express their opinions through. "[114], In 1988, Gaddafi criticized the "excesses" he blamed on the Revolutionary Councils, stating that "they deviated, harmed, tortured" and that "the true revolutionary does not practise repression. The Battle of Misrata was the fiercest battle in the civil war. Their war is a tradition that passes from father to son and without a motive but the rivalry between the peasants. Journalists and human rights researchers made daily phone calls to hundreds of civilians in government held territory. Fighter Plane Sculpture, International reactions to military intervention, International reactions to Gaddafi's death, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 65/265, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2009, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2016, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present), Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present), Communal conflicts in Nigeria (1998–present), Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present), Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–2018), Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_Libyan_Civil_War&oldid=995096112, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with failed verification from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 05:38. [277] On 21 February, he made an appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight to discuss the uprising. Directed by Yann Samuell. A further UN resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya, and to use "all necessary measures" to prevent attacks on civilians,[65] which turned into a bombing campaign by the forces of NATO against military installations and civilian infrastructure of Libya. [232], On 7 April, Reuters reported that soldiers loyal to Gaddafi were sent into refugee camps to intimidate and bribe black African migrant workers into fighting for the Libyan state during the war. BBC cited a Libyan who said that teachers who called it "rubbish" could face execution. [353], The ongoing conflict (or conflicts) ended for the purposes of legal qualification with the conclusion of hostilities in Libya in the end of October 2011. Libya 2011: Reassessing the International Intervention 9 November 2020, 14:00 to 15:30 Please note: this event has passed. Jalal al-Digheily [54] However, there was no independent verification of the Health Minister's statement and, one month later, the NTC reduced the estimated number of killed to 25,000. It helped to create moral support and encouraged a spirit of revolt against the governments. In the countryside of France, two groups of boys from the rural villages of Longeverne and Velran are in constant war against each other. [33] The war led to the death of Gaddafi in October, and of thousands of other people. See, e.g., Kolb, Robert and Hyde, Richard. The history of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi spanned 42 years from 1969 to 2011. [188], In a 17 March 2011 interview, shortly before the military intervention, Muammar Gaddafi's son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that "armed militia" fighters in Benghazi were killing children and terrorizing the population. and rebels began forming their own government. [312], Early the following day, 24 August, Gaddafi broadcast an address from a Tripoli local radio station in which he said the withdrawal from Bab al-Azizia had been a "tactical" move. Obama approves airstrikes against Libya, March 19, 2011. The boy, who had previously been a shepherd in Chad, told that a Libyan man had offered him a job and a free flight to Tripoli, but in the end he had been airlifted to shoot opposition members in Eastern Libya. But in Libya, there is something different. [370][371] "Hundreds of thousands of sub-Saharan Africans worked in Gaddafi's Libya, doing everything from managing hotels to sweeping floors. [223] A recruitment center for Malian soldiers leaving to Libya was found in a Bamako hotel. If you do that, it means (that the) one-third of the population of Libya, which is black, is also mercenaries. These elections were planned to coincide with the Jamahiriya's usual periodic elections for the Popular Committees, Basic People's Committees, Basic People's Congresses, and General People's Congresses, in 2010. There were also reports of harassment and theft by rebels; however, the rebel army indicated it would leave unarmed civilians "to their own devices", and had allowed families in the city access to supplies and medical assistance. By 22 August, rebel fighters had gained entrance into Tripoli and occupied Green Square, which was promptly renamed Martyrs' Square in memory of those who had died fighting in the civil war. [97], Some of the worst economic conditions were in the eastern parts of the state, once a breadbasket of the ancient world, where Gaddafi extracted oil. No banks. ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "Gadhafi Using Foreign Children As Mercenaries In Libya", "African Mercenaries in Libya Nervously Await Their Fate", "Libya: Gaddafi and His Mali-Chad Tuareg Mercenaries", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны, Источник: освобожденный из плена в Ливии белорусский военный прибыл в Минск, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8451467/Female-Colombian-snipers-fighting-to-defend-Col-Gaddafi-in-Libya.html, "Sudan: Govt Deploys Troops to Borders With Libya", "Algeria May have Violated UN Resolution By Providing Weapons to Libya, US State Dept", https://www.nknews.org/2015/01/north-korea-and-libya-friendship-through-artillery/, https://web.archive.org/web/20110321212338/http://www.sudantribune.com/NAfrican-Union-demands-end-to%2C38339, https://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2011/06/17/russia-and-china-team-up-against-nato-libya-campaign/, https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-libya-idUKTRE71P1LO20110226, https://havanatimes.org/news/cuba-pulls-diplomats-out-of-libya/, https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-08-25/south-africa-sticks-gaddafi, https://www.opinion.com.bo/articulo/el-pais/choquehuanca-bolivia-reconocera-gobierno-transitorio-libia/20110910124900377464.html, https://www.the-star.co.ke/national/national/46949-pm-flays-au-over-libya-crisis/, https://www.uypress.net/Internacionales/Mujica-opino-sobre-la-muerte-de-Muamar-Gadafi-uc21199, https://archive.vn/20120907081245/http://www.newera.com.na/article.php?articleid=40268, https://www.irishexaminer.com/world/arid-30517648.html, https://en.mercopress.com/2011/10/24/ecuador-president-condemns-killing-of-gaddafi-and-family-members-as-homicide, https://web.archive.org/web/20120323030200/http://www.lapatilla.com/site/2011/09/09/alba-asegura-que-solo-reconoce-a-gadafi/, "UPDATE 1-Anger, chaos but no revolt after Libya violence", "The rise of the 'Madkhalists': Inside Libya's struggle for religious supremacy", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan revolution casualties lower than expected, says new government", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "Libyan Rebels Pledge Free and Fair Election", "A Visual Look Back at the Libyan Revolution", "Opinion: On the second anniversary of the 17th February 2011 Revolution – reflections and considerations", "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war", "Security Council Calls for War Crimes Inquiry in Libya", "Security Council Authorizes 'All Necessary Measures' To Protect Civilians in Libya", "Gadhafi Blasts 'Crusader' Aggression After Strikes", "Libya accuses rebels of breaching truce", "Libyan rebels reject African Union road map – Africa", "Street fighting rages in Tripoli as Gaddafi loyalists fight rearguard action", "Gaddafi killed as Libya's revolt claims hometown", "Former Gaddafi stronghold revolts against Tripoli", "Qaddafi Is No Mubarak as Regime Overthrow May Trigger a 'Descent to Chaos, "Libyan minister claims Gaddafi is powerless and the ceasefire is 'solid, "Gaddafi Is Eccentric But the Firm Master of His Regime, Wikileaks Cables Say", "What Did Qaddafi's Green Book Really Say? [341], The Uppsala Conflict Data Program, a public data resource that includes information on different types of organized violence (e.g. [88] Homelessness was insignificant, with literacy rates estimated at 88%, and average life expectancy rose from 51/54 in 1969 to 74/77. The victim's body showed signs of torture. actors involved, casualties, date, location, etc. By ANDREW GLASS. The resolution also referred the actions of the government to the International Criminal Court for investigation,[64] and an arrest warrant for Gaddafi was issued on 27 June. Responding to demands that he step down, he stated that he could not step down, as he held a purely symbolic position like Queen Elizabeth, and that the people were in power. He regained Ra's Lanuf and Brega. [245], International journalists who attempted to cover the events were attacked by Gaddafi's forces. It also adopted Law 37, prohibiting the publication of "propaganda" criticising the revolution, questioning the authority of Libya's governing organs, or praising Muammar Gaddafi, his family, his government, or the ideas of the Green Book.[334]. On February 16, 2011 Libyan protesters clashed with police in an anti-government demonstration inspired by the uprisings that brought down the rulers of Libya's neighbors, Egypt and Tunisia. Government forces responded by arresting and attacking peaceful demonstrators in Benghazi and other eastern cities. [115][116] Until the mid-1980s, Libya's intelligence service conducted assassinations of Libyan dissidents around the world. They were soon nicknamed the Libyan Revolution of Dignity by the protesters and foreign media. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). [270], Muhammad as-Senussi, son of the former Crown Prince and grand-nephew of the late King Idris, sent his condolences "for the heroes who have laid down their lives, killed by the brutal forces of Gaddafi" and called on the international community "to halt all support for the dictator with immediate effect. A doctor in Benghazi said of the mercenaries that "they know one thing: to kill who is in front of them. He also stated that NATO offered to drop the ICC charges against him and his father if they accept a secret deal, an offer they rejected. Op 17 maart 2011 besloot de VN-veiligheidsraad dat er in Libië moest worden ingegrepen. He later stated that international community needs "less talk and more action" to stop the violence. [321], On 1 September, when Gaddafi lost his capital Tripoli but continued fighting, the Russian government under president Dmitry Medvedev and prime minister Vladimir Putin recognized the Libyan NTC as the only legal regime in Libya. But some also fought as pro-Gaddafi mercenaries, and many migrant workers [-] fled ahead of the rebels, fearing they would be mistaken for mercenaries. [167] Many Islamists were part of the rebel movement in both eastern and western Libya. The dead and injured were piled into vehicles and taken away, possibly for cremation. [204], Gaddafi reportedly imprisoned thousands or tens of thousands of residents in Tripoli, with Red Cross denied access to these hidden prisons. According to Moreno-Ocampo, "shooting at protesters was systematic". Some outsiders infiltrated that group. [130] Protests took place in Benghazi, Ajdabiya, Derna, Zintan, and Bayda. A provisional refugee camp set up at Ras Ajdir with a capacity for 10,000 was overflowing with an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 refugees. [219] Gaddafi's former Chief of Protocol Nouri Al Mesmari said in an interview with the Al Jazeera that Nigerien, Malian, Chadian and Kenyan mercenaries were among foreign soldiers helping fight the uprising on behalf of Gaddafi. La première guerre civile libyenne, ou révolution libyenne, est un conflit armé issu d'un mouvement de contestation populaire, assorti de revendications sociales et politiques, qui s'est déroulé entre le 15 février 2011 et le 23 octobre 2011 en Libye. [103] The New York Times pointed to Gaddafi's relatives adopting lavish lifestyles, including luxurious homes, Hollywood film investments, and private parties with American pop stars. Er werd voor een resolutie gestemd die militair ingrijpen mogelijk maakte. Legal qualification of an armed conflict determines which rules of international humanitarian law apply to the conduct of the parties during that conflict. Journalists were prevented from travelling to the village of Dafniya and were turned back at rebel-held checkpoints. [328] When China and Russia had abandoned their support of Gaddafi, a spokesman of the NTC of Libya said because of their long time support of Gaddafi, it will be very hard for a Chinese, Russian or Indian oil companies to acquire new exploration contracts.[329]. Journalists were not allowed to go anywhere, or talk to anyone, without authorization from Gaddafi's officials who always followed them. [249], After the uprising began, Libyan students studying in the United States allegedly received phone calls from the Libyan embassy, instructing them to join pro-Gaddafi rallies, and threatening the loss of their government-funded scholarships if they refused. [365] Yet, there remains the concern that aid agencies' neutrality will be brought into question by accepting military support, putting aid staff at risk of being attacked and causing some parties to prevent the agencies accessing all the areas they need to. In September, the Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid was besieged by rebels, who reported that Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam was hiding in the city. Military units who joined the rebellion and many volunteers formed fighting units to defend against Jamahiriya attacks and to work to bring Tripoli under the influence of Jalil. Local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were also kept well-armed. [150], Later in February, Gaddafi stated that the rebels were influenced by Al-Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden, and hallucinogenic drugs put in drinks and pills. Libye je stát v severní Africe u Středozemního moře.Jejími sousedy jsou Egypt, Súdán, Čad, Niger, Alžírsko a Tunisko.Jméno státu má původ ve starořeckém mýtu o Libyi.V roce 2011 zde proběhla občanská válka mezi stoupenci Kaddáfího džamáhíríje a povstalci zastupovanými Národní přechodnou radou a podporovanými NATO.Válka skončila vítězstvím povstalců. Protesters also clashed with police in Bayda and attacked government offices. NATO and the rebels rejected the offer, and NATO soon resumed bombardment of Tripoli. The rebels won the battle and took control of the city. Available only in … [119] During the early 1980s, the Revolutionary Committees had considerable power and became a growing source of tension within the Jamihiriya,[120] to the extent that Gaddafi sometimes criticized their effectiveness and excessive repression,[119][120] until the power of the Revolutionary Committees was eventually restricted in the late 1980s. Muammar Gaddafi was the head of the Free Officers, a group of Arab nationalists that deposed King Idris I in 1969 in a "bloodless coup. Adopting resolution 1973 (2011) by a vote of 10 in favour to none against, with 5 abstentions (Brazil, China, ... Libya: United Nations Security Council proposed designations ", "Kenya: 'Dogs of War' Fighting for Gaddafi", "afrol News – Libya, Chad row over "mercenaries, "Gaddafi Hiring Tuareg Warriors as Mercenaries in Libya: Reports", "Gaddafi Recruits 800 Tuareg Mercenaries", "The Irish teen who tracks and kills Gaddafi's snipers", "European mercenaries fighting for Gaddafi, expert says", "Text Message from a House in Libya: We Are Being Slaughtered Here", "Defying Gadhafi's Crackdown; Analysis with Dr. Drew Pinsky; Interview with Kevin Smith", "Gaddafi's Fleeing Mercenaries Describe the Collapse of the Regime", "Benghazi Doctor: Gadhafi Using Foreign Mercenaries to Quell Protests", "Africans say Libyan troops try to make them fight", "World Report 2012: Rights Trends in World Report 2012: Libya", "Comment j'ai mis 8 millions de libyens sur écoute", "Desperate Gaddafi Bombs Protesters, Blocks Internet", "Libya: Governments Should Demand End to Unlawful Killings", "The Editors: The Difficulty of Reporting from Inside Libya", "Libya Fights Protesters with Snipers, Grenades", "Libya Witness: 'It's Time for Revolt. [286][383] The Zuwayya tribe, based in eastern Libya, threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in its part of Libya if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators. [316] Concerns were raised over the danger of Gaddafi mounting an insurgency against the new authorities. "[216], Over ten ammunition shipments sponsored by Qatar were allegedly delivered to anti-Gaddhafi forces via Sudan. [317], By mid-October 2011, much of the city of Sirte had been taken by NTC forces, although fierce fighting continued around the city center, where many pro-Gaddafi fighters were encamped. He stated, "You know, the armoured militia yesterday, they killed four young boys in Benghazi. Libyan security forces fired live ammunition into the armed protests. [93], An estimated 13% of Libyan citizens were unemployed. [179][180][181] He said that if the rebels laid down their arms, they would not be harmed. Everybody is terrified because of the armed militia. [62], The validity of the rape allegations is questioned by Amnesty International, which has not found evidence to back up the claims and said that there are indications that on several occasions the rebels in Benghazi appeared to have knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence. Justice Minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil and Interior Minister Major General Abdul Fatah Younis both defected to the opposition. [173][174] Gaddafi's claims are supported by a 2008 secret cable from the US embassy in Tripoli to the US State Department, and an analysis by the Combating Terrorism Center at the US Military Academy at West Point of a set of documents called the Sinjar Records, purporting to show a statistical study of the al-Qaeda personnel records. [62], The Libyan government alleged that the armed rebellion was composed of "criminal gangs and mercenaries. On 24 February, Libya's ambassador to Malta said that Gaddafi's government believed the number of dead to be about 300, including civilians, police officers, and soldiers. This extended even to his own sons, as he repeatedly changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival. In the 1980s, a large portion of it was spent on arms purchases, and on sponsoring militant groups and independence movements around the world. [184], The Swedish peace research institute SIPRI reported flights between Tripoli and a dedicated military base in Belarus which only handles stockpiled weaponry and military equipment. [308], In July 2011, Saif al-Islam accused NATO of bombing Libyan civilians, including his family members and their children, under the false pretence that their homes were military bases.

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